By Ben Taylor
No Shortage of Silver Research
(UtopiaSilver.com) This silver research bibliography was assembled by Dr. A. Bart Flick, the developer of Silverlon, a wound dressing used primarily in burn wards that incorporates a silver wound contact layer in the bandages. Epidermal damage caused by burns are the most difficult to heal and silver aids in the healing process better than anything else. I would also add to Dr. Flick’s list, the work of Alfred B. Searle, “The Use of Colloids in Health and Disease” with a foreword by Sir Malcolm Morris, which was published in 1919. At that time silver in chemical forms had long been used effectively and safely by mainstream medicine.
Colloidal Silver Under Constant Attack
Colloidal Silver has been under almost constant attack by the “triune crime syndicate” composed of the pharmaceutical industry, mainstream medicine, and government agencies. The claim is often made by these three “partners in crime” that there is not enough research or clinical studies to make a determination that colloid silver is both safe and effective. The truth is there is not only much historical and anecdotal evidence as to the safety and effectiveness of silver, but there has been much research and many studies on silver and silver electrodes in healthcare applications.
SILVER RESEARCH BIBLIOGRAPHY
by Dr. A. Bart Flick, developer of Silverlon
1. Addicks, L. et al.: Silver in Industry, Reinhold Pub. Corp., NY 401-450, 584-597 (1940). Extensive bibliography on silver for water purification.
2. Akiyama, H. and Okamoto, S., Prophylaxis of indwelling urethral catheter infection: clinical experience with a modified Foley catheter and drainage system, J. Urol., 121, 40, 1979.
3. Avakyan, Z.A., Comparative toxicity of heavy metals for certain microorganisms, Microbiology, 36, 366, 1967.
4. Baenziger, N.C., Description of the structure of three silver-containing drug complexes, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
5. Barranco, S.D. and Colmano, G., Electrical Inhibition of Staphlococcus aureus, Virginia Medical, 646, 1976.
6. Barranco, S.D., Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J., and Becker, R.O., In vitro effect of weak direct current on staphlococcus aureus, Clinical Orthopaedics, 100, 250, 1974.
7. Becker, R.O., Electrical treatment of osteomyelitis, Surgery of the Musculoskeletal System, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1983, 4, 10- 197.
8. Becker, R.O., The effect of electrically generated silver ions on human cells, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
9. Becker, R.O., Effect of anodally generated silver ions on fibrosarcoma cells, Electro- and Magnetobio., 11, 57, 1992.
10. Becker, R.O. and Esper, C., Electrostimulation and undetected malignant tumors, Clin. Orthop., 161, 336, 1981.
11. Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with electrically generated silver ions, J. Bone Jt. Surgery., 60-A, 871, 1978.
12. Benvenisty, A.I., Tannenbaum, G., Ahlborn, T.N., Fox, C.L., Modak, S., Sampath, L., Reemtsma, K. and Nowygrod, R., Control of prosthetic bacterial infections: evaluation of an easily incorporated, tightly bound, silver antibiotic PTFE graft, J. Surg. Res., 44,1, 1988.
13. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 9, 357, 1976.
14. Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Bierman, R., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Antifungal properties of electrically generated metallic ions, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 10, 856, 1976.
15. Block, Seymour, Ed.: Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, Chapter 18; Lea & Febiger & Co., Philadelphia, 3rd Ed (1983). Extensive bibliography.
16. Bolton, L., Foleno, B., Means, B., and Petrucelli, S., Direct-current bactericidal effect on intact skin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 18, 137, 1980.
17. Bolton, M., The effects of various metals on the growth of certain bacteria, Am. Phys., ?, 174, ?.
18. Bragg, P.D. and Rainnie, D.J., The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli, Can. J. Microbiol., 20, 883, 1974.
19. Buckley, W.R.: Localized Argyria, Arch. Dermatol. 88: 531-539, 1963.
20. Bult, A., Silver sulfanilamides and related compounds for dermatological application, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
21. Burke, J.F., and Bondoc, C.C., Combined burn therapy utilizing immediate skin allografts and 0.5% AgNO3, Arch. Surg., 97, 716, 1968.
22. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Mechanisms of antibacterial effect of biologic dressings, Ann. Surg., 177, 181, 1973.
23. Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Effect of skin dressings and topical antibiotics on healing of partial thickness skin wounds in rats, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 136, 958, 1973.
24. Butts, A., The chemical properties of silver, Silver-Economics, Metallurgy, and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY 1975, 123.
25. Carr, H.S., Wlodkowski, T.J., Rosenkranz, H.S., Silver-sulfadiazine: in vitro antibacterial activity, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 4, 585, 1973.
26. Chu, C.S., McManus, A.T., Okerberg, C.V., Mason, A.D., and Pruitt, B.A., Weak direct current accelerates split-thickness graft healing on tangentially excised second-degree burns, J. Burn Care Rehab., 12, 285, 1991.
27. Chu, C.S., McManus, A.T., Mason, A.D., Okerberg, C.V. and Pruitt, B.A., Multiple graft harvestings from deep partial-thickness scald wounds healed under the influence of weak direct current, J. Trauma, 30, 1044, 1990.
28. Chu, C.C., Tsai, W.C., Yao, J.Y., and Chiu, S.S., Newly made antibacterial braided nylon sutures. 1. In vitro qualitative and in vivo preliminary biocompatibility study, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 1281, 1987
29. Cieszynski, T., Influence of negative electricity on infected callus and osteitis, Acta Morphologica Acad. Sci. Hung., 15, 309, 1967.
30. Collinge, C.A., Goll, G., Seligson, D. and Easly, K.J., Pin tract infections: silver vs. uncoated pins. Orthopedics, 17, 445, 1994.
31. Colmano, G., Medical Applications of monomolecular films of silver, gold and other metals, International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
32. Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Inhibition of staphlococcus aureus on a contaminated electrode in the femur of the rabbitt by low electrical current and its relation to stress, Biophys. J., 15, 28a, 1975.
33. Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Staphlococcus aureus inhibition by low direct current on silver electrodes in the femur of rabbits. Fifty- third Annual meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA, May 6-9, 1975.
34. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., Lesch, T.E., and Barranco, S.D., Control of Staphlococcus aureus osteomyelitis by microampere activation of metal ions in monomolecular films on stainless steel pins, Fifty-Third Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA, May 6- 9,
35. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D. Activation of antibacterial silver coatings on surgical implants by direct current: preliminary studies in rabbits, _., 41, 964, 1980.
36. Colmano, G. , Edwards, S.S., Fainter, L.K. and Barranco, S. D., Electronmicrographs of silver and stainless steel surgical implants coated with silver compounds to control S. Aureus by direct current activation, Twenty-eighth Annual ORS, New Orleans, LA, January 19-21, 1982.
37. Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S. and Barranco, S.L., Effects of low direct current on monomolecular layers of metal stearates coating electrodes in bacterial cultures and surgical implants, Symposium URSI “Ondes Electro-magnetiques et Biologie”, Jouy-en-Josas, Juillet, 1980, 149.
38. Colmano, G., Fainter, L.K., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D., SEM of S. aureus on current-activated surgical pins coated with silver and silver stearate monolayers, Second Annual BRAGS, Oxford, U.K., Sept. 20-22, 1982.
39. Cowlishaw, J., Spadaro, J.A., Becker, R.A., Inhibition of enzyme induction in e. coli by anadoc silver, J. Bioelectricity, 1, 295, 1982.
40. Crannell, M.Y., Silver in Medicine, Silver-Economics, Metallurgy and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY, 1975, 227.
41. Cullen, J.M. and Spadaro, J.A., Axonal regeneration in the spinal cord: a role for applied electricity, J. Bioelectricity, 2, 57, 1983.
42. Danscher, G., Rytter Norgaard, J.O., and Baatrup, E., Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit, Histochemistry, 86, 465, 1987.
43. Deitch, E.A., Marino, A.A., Gillespie, T.E., and Albright, J.A., Silver-nylon: a new antimicrobial agent, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 23, 356, 1983.
44. Deitch, E . A. , Marino, A. A . , Malaleonok, V. , and Alb richt, J . A . , Silver nylon cloth: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial activity, J. Trauma, 27, 301, 1987.
45. Doherty, P.J. and Williams, D.F., The response of cells and cellular enzymes to silver, presented at Biointeractions ’87, Cambridge, U.K., July 6-8, 1987, 38.
46. Conahue, G.F., The analytical chemistry of silver,…
47. Eichhom, G.L., Shin, Y.A., Butzow, J.J., Clark, P., and Tarien, E., Interaction of metal ions with biological systems, with special reference to silver and gold, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
48. Ellerman-Eriksen, S., Rungby, J., and Morgensen, S.C., Autointerference in silver accumulation in macrophages without affecting phagocytic, migratory or interferon-producing capacity, Virchows Arch., B. 53, 243, 1987.
49. Ersek, R.A., and Navarro, J.A., Maximizing wound healing with silver impregnated porcine xenograft, Today’s OR Nurse, 12, 4, 1990.
50. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Cross-linked silver-impregnated skin for burn wound management, J. Burn Care Rehabil., 9, 476, 1988.
51. Ersek, R.A., Gadaria, U., and Denton, D.R., New natural wound dressing, Phys. Ther. Forum, 5, 1, 1986.
52. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Silver-impregnated porcine xenograft for damaged or missing skin, Contemp. Surg., 23, 83, 1983.
53. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Treatment of skin graft donor sites using silver-impregnated porcine xenograft, Contemp. Orthop., 12, 27, 1986.
54. Ersek, R. A. and Denton, D . R. , Silver-impregnated porcine xenografts for treatment of meshed autografts, Plast. Surg., 13, 482, 1984.
55. ErsekR.A. and Lorio, J., The most indolent ulcers of the skin treated with porcine xenografts and silver ions, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 158, 431, 1984.
56. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Rhinophyma: treatment with electrocautery and silver-impregnated porcine xenograft, Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 74, 269, 1984.
57. Ersek, R.A., and Hachen, H.J., Porcine xenografts in the treatment of pressure ulcers, Ann. Plast. Surg., 5, 464, 1980.
58. Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Nail bed avulsions treated with porcine xenografts, J. Hand Surg., 10A, 152, 1985.
59. Ersek, R.A., Denton, D.R., Surak, G.M., and Peters, C.W., Treatment of spider bites with silver-impregnated porcine xenografts, Texas Med., 81, 32, 1985.
60. Falcone, A.E., and Spadaro, J.A., Inhibitory effects of electrically activated silver material on cutaneous wound bacteria, Plast. Reconstruc. Surg., 77, 455, 1986.
61. Flick, A.B., Clinical application of electrical silver iontophoresis, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
62. Flowers III, R.H., Schwenzer, K.J., Kopel, R.F., Fisch, M.J., Tucker, S.I., and Farr, B.M., Efficacy of an attachable subcutaneous cuff for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infection. JAMA, 261, 878, 1989.
63. Fox, C.L., Jr.: Silver Sulfadiazine – A New Topical Therapy for Pseudomonas in Burns; Arch. Surg., 96, 184-188 (1968)
64. Fox, C.L. and Modak, S.M., Mechanism of silver sulfadiazine action on burn wound infections, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 5, 582, 1974.
65. Fox, C.L. and Quintiliani, R., Uses of silver sulfadiazine in burns and surgical wounds, Inf. in Surg., 13, 1982.
66. Furst, A., Schlauder, M.C.: Inactivity of Two Noble Metals as Carcinogens; Jour. Environmental Pathology and Toxicology, 1, 51-57
67. Geddes, L.A., and Baker, L.E., Chlorided silver electrodes, Med. Res. Eng., Third quarter, 33, 1967.
68. Golubovich, V.N., and Rabotnova, I.L., Kinetics of growth inhibition in Candida utilis by silver ions, Microbio., 43, 948, 1974.
69. Gristina, A.G., and Costerton, J.W., Bacterial adherence to Biomaterials and tissue, J. Bone Jt. Surg., 67-A, 264, 1985.
70. Gruen, L.C., Interaction of amino acids with silver ions, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 386, 270, 1975.
71. Haeger, K., Preoperative treatment of leg ulcers with silver spray and aluminum foil, Acta Chir. Scand., 125, 32, 1963.
72. Hall, R.E., Bender, G., and Marquis, R.E., In vitro effects of ion intensity direct current generated silver on eukaryotic cells, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 46, 128, 1988.
73. Hall, R.E., Bender, G., and Marquis, R.E., Inhibitory and cidal antimicrobial actions of electrically generated silver ions, J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 45, 779, 1987.
74. Halsted, W.S., Ligature and suture material: the employment of fine silk in preference to catgut and the advantages of transfixion of tissues and vessels in control of hemorrhage – also an account of the introduction of gloves, gutta-percha tissue and silver foil, JAMA, LX, 1119, 1913.
75. Harker, J.M., and Hunter, D.: Occupational Argyria, Br J. Dermatol. 47: 441-455, 1935.
76. Harrison, H.N., Pharmacology of Sulfadiazine silver, Arch. Surg., 114, 281, 1979.
77. Haynes, J.L., and Schulte, T.H., Antibacterial silver surfaces and assessment of needs and opportunities for clinical devices, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
78. Hendry, A.T., and Stewart, I.O., Silver-resistant enterobacteriaceae from hospital patients, Can. J. Microbiol., 25, 915, 1979.
79. Holder, I.A., Knoll, C.A., and Wesselman, J., Norfloxacin and silvernorfloxacin as topical antimicrobial agents: results of in vitro susceptibility testing against bacteria and Candida sp. isolated from burn patients, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
80. Janz, G.J., and Ives, D.J.G., Silver, silver chloride electrodes, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., ?, 210, ?.
81. Jono, K., Yamano, T., Fujmoto, T., and Eguchi, Y.: Bactericidal Action of Active Carbon Coated With Silver and Its Application to Water Purifiers; J. Takeda Research Lab., 33, 9-18, (1974).
82. Jones, A.M., and Bailey, J.A.: Effect of Silver from Cloud Seeding on Rabbits; Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 3/3, 353-363 (1974).
83. Kahn, J., Acetic acid iontophoresis for calcium deposits, Phys. Ther., 57, 658, 1977.
84. Kahn, J., Calcium iontophoresis in suspected myopathy, Phys. Ther.
85. Kirchoff, D.A.: Localized Argyria After a Surgical Endodontic Procedure, Oral Surg. 32: 613-617, 1971.
86. Kramer, S.J., Spadaro, J.A. and Webster, D.A., Antibacterial and osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone matrix treated with silver, Clin. Orthop. Rell. Res., 161, 154, 1981.
87. Kul’skii, L.A., Savluk, O.S., Moroz, O.G., and Kornievakay, L.P.: Disinfection and Conservation of Water with Silver (Russian), Aktualne Vodoprovedeniye Sanitarniy Mikrobiologii, 111 (1973).
88. Landeen, L.K., Yahya, M.T., Kutz, S.M., Gerba, C.P.: Microbiological Evaluation of Copper: Silver Disinfection Units for Use in Swimming Pools; Water Science Tech., 21, 3, 267-270 (1989).
89. Lee, J.V., Hibberd, M.L. and Stanley, S.C.: A Comparison of the Biocidal Properties of Silver Ions and Chloride Against Legionella Species; PHLS Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, England, DD3/2 AGREPORT (1989).
90. McHugh, G.L., Moellering, R.C., Hopkins, C.C. and Swartz, M.N., Salmonella typhimurium resistant to silver nitrate, chloramphenicol and ampicilin, Lancet, ii, 235, 1975.
91. McNamara, A. and Williams, D.F., Scanning electron microscopy of the metal-tissue interface, Biomaterials, 3, 160, 1982.
92. MacKeen, P.C., Person, S., Warner, S.C., Snipes, W., and Stevens, S.E., Silver-coated nylon fiber as an antibacterial agent, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 31, 93, 1987.
93. Madden, M.R., Nolan, E., Finkelstein, J.L., Yurt, R.W., Smeland, J., Goodwin, C.W., Hefton, J., and Staiano-Coico, L., Comparison of an occlusive and semi-occlusive dressing and the effect of the wound exudate upon keratinocyte proliferation, J. Trauma, 29, 924, 1989.
94. Mahan, J., Seligson, D., Henry, S.L., Hynes, P., and Dobbins, J., Factors in pin tract infections, Orthopedics, 14, 305, 1991.
95. Maki, D.G., Cobb, L., Garman, J.K., Shapiro, J.M., Ringer, M., and Helgerson, R.B., An attachable silver-impregnated cuff for prevention of infection with central venous catheters: a prospective randomized multicenter trial, Am. J. Med., 85, 307, 1988.
96. Marchant, R.E., Miller, K.M. and Anderson, J.M., In vivo Leukocyte interactions with Biomer, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 18, 1169, 1984.
97. Marino, A.A., Malakonok, V., Albright, J.A., Deitch, E.A. and Specian, R.D., Electrochemical properties of silver-nylon fabrics, J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 68, 1985.
98. Marino, A.A., Electromagnetic fields, cancer and the theory of neuroendocrine related promotion, Bioelectrochem. Bioenergetics, 29- 255, 1993.
99. Marino, A.A., Deitch, E.A., Malakanok, V., Albright, J.A., and Specian, R. D., Electrical augmentation of the antimicrobial activity of silver-nylon fabrics, J. Biol. Phys., 12, 93, 1984.
100. Marino, A.A., Malakanok, V., Deitch, E.A., and Albright, J., Electrical properties of silver-nylon, Third Annual BRAGS, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 2-5, 1983, 36.
101. Marino, A.A., Deitch, E.A. and Albright, J.A., Electric silver antisepsis, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., BME-32, 336, 1985.
102. Marino, A.A., Berger, T.J., Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., The effects of selected metals on marrow cells in culture, Chem. Biol. Interactions, 9, 217, 1974.
103. Marshall, J.P., and Schneider, R.P.: Systemic Argyria Secondary to Topical Silver Nitrate, Arch. Dermatol. 113: 1077-1079, 1977.
104. Mears, D.C., Electron-probe microanalysis of tissue and cells from implant areas, J. Bone Joint Surg., 48B, 567, 1966.
105. Merril, C.R., Silver-stain detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
106. Modak, S.M. and Fox, F.L., Binding of silver sulfadiazine to the cellular components of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Biochem. Pharmacol., 22, 2391, 1973.
107. Modak, S.M., Sampath, L., Fox, C.L. Combined use of silver sulfadiazine and antibiotics topically in burn wounds as a possible solution to bacterial resistance, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
108. Modak, S.M., Sampath, Lester and Fox, C.L.: Combined Use of Silver Sulfadiazine and Antibiotics as a Possible Solution to Bacterial Resistance in Burn Wounds; Jour. Burn Care, Vol. 9, No. 4, p. 359 (July/Aug 1988).
109. Modak, S.M. and Fox, C.L. Sulfadiazine silver-resistant Pseudomonas in burns: new topical agents, Arch. Surg., 116, 854, 1981.
110. Nordenstrom, B.E.W. Biokinetic impacts of structure and imaging of the lung: the concept of biologically closed electric circuits. AJR, 145, 1985, 447.
111. Olcott, C.T.: Experimental Argyrosis, IV, Morphological Changes in the Experimental Animal; Am. Jour. of Pathology, 24, 813, (1948).
112. Orr, M.A., Electroplating….
113. Owen, M.C.R.: A Case History of 30 Years of Use With Silver Disinfected Drinking Water; Records of EPA Public Hearing on Revised Primary Drinking Water Regulations held Jan. 28, 1986.
114. Pareilleux, A. and Sizard, N., Lethal effects of electric current on Escherichia coli. Appl. Microbiol., 19, 421, 1970.
115. Pariser, R.J., Generalized argyria: Clinopathologic Features and Histochemistry, Arch. Dermatol., 114; 373-377, 1978.
116. Parker, W.A.: Argyria and Cyanotic Heart Disease, Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 34: 287-789, 1977.
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119. Polachek, A.A., Cope, C.B., Willard, B.S., and Enns, T.: Metabolism of Radioactive Silver in a Patient with Carcinoid; Jour. Lab. and Clinical Medicine, 56, 1976-1979 (1949).
120. Rich, L.L., Epinette, W.W., and Wasser, W.K.: Argyria Presenting as Cyanotic Heart Disease, Am J. Cardiol. 30: 290, 1972.
121. Rode, H. de Wet, P.M. and Cywes, S., Germicidal efficacy of silver sulfadiazine in burn wounds. First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
122. Ronchese, F.: Argyrosis and Cyanosis – Melanosis and Cyanosis, Arch. Dermatol. 80: 277-282, 1959.
123. Rosenberg, B., Van Camp, L., and Krigas, T., Inhibition of cell division in Escherrichia coli by electrolysis products from a platinum electrode, Nature, 205, 1965.
124. Rosenkranz, H.S. and Carr, H.S., Silver sulfadiazine: effect on the growth and metabolism of bacteria, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2, 948-951, 1972.
125. Rosenkranz, H. S., Coward, J.E., Wlodkowski, T.J. and Carr, H. S. Properties of silver sulfadiazine-resistant enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 5, 199, 1974.
126. Rosenkranz, H.S. and Rosenkranz, S., Silver sulfadiazine: interaction with isolated deoxyribonucleic acid, Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother., 2, 373, 1972.
127. Rosenman, K.D., Moss, A., Kon, S. Argyria: Clinical Implications of Exposure to Silver Nitrate and Silver Oxide; Jour. Occupational Med. 21, 430-435 (1979)
128. Ross, E.M.: Argyria Caused by Chewing of Photographic Film, N Engl. J. Med. 299: 798, 1963.
129. Rowley, B.A., and McKenna, J.M. Electrical current effects on E. coli growth rates (36269), P.S.E.B.M., 139, 929, 1972.
130. Rungby, J., Experimental argyosis: ultrastructural localization of silver in rat eye, Exp. Mol. Pathol., 45, 22, 1986.
131. Rungby, J., Exogenous silver in dorsal root ganglia, peripheral nerve, enteric ganglia and adrenal medulla, Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin), 69, 46, 1986.
132. Rungby, J., Ellerman-Eriksen, S. and Danscher, G., Effects of selenium on toxicity and ultrastructural localization of silver in cultured macrophages, Arch. Toxicol., 61, 40, 1987.
133. Rungby, J., Huffman, P., and Ellermann-Eriksen, S., Silver affects viability and structure of cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages and peroxidative capacity of whole mouse liver, Arch. Toxicol., 59, 408, 1987.
134. Savluk, O.S.: Influence of Anodically Dissolved Silver on the Reticuloendothelial System in Test Animals (Russian); Vodopodgotovka I Ochistka Promyshlennyh Stokov, 10, 72-77 (1973).
135. Schaefer, A.J., K.O. and Johnson, S.M., Effect of silver oxide/trichloroisocyanuric acid antimicrobial urinary drainage system on catheter associated bacteriuria, J. Urol., 139, 69, 1988.
136. Shafik, A., The electrified drain. A new device for sterilizing the field of drainage, Int. Surg., 78, 357, 1993.
137. Sobotka, H., Monomolecular laters,….
138. Spadaro, J.A., Silver anode inhibition of bacteria, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.
139. Spadaro, J.A., Antibacterial effects of silver electrodes, Third Ann. Conf. Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. of IEEE, 1981, 215.
140. Spadaro, J.A., Bioelectric stimulation of bone formation: methods, models and mechanisms, J. Bioelect., 1, 99, 1982.
141. Spadaro, J.A., Electrically stimulated bone growth in animals and man. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res., 122, 325, 1977.
142. Spadaro, J.A., Bone formation aterial inhibition with silver and other electrodes, Reconstr. Surg. Traumat. 19, 40, 1985.
143. Spadaro, J.A., Electrical osteogenesis – role of the electrode material, Electrical Prop. Bone Cartillage, ?, 189, 1979.
144. Spadaro, J.A., Electrically enhanced osteogenesis at various metal cathodes, J. Biomed. Mat. Res., 16, 861, 1982.
145. Spadaro, J.A. and Becker, R.O., Function of implanted cathodes in electrode-induced bone growth, Med. Biol. Eng. Compuit., 17, 769, 1979.
146. Spadaro, J.A. and Becker, R.O. Some specific cellular effects of electrically injected silver and gold ions, Bioelectrochem. Bioenergetics, 3, 49, 1976.
147. Spadaro, J.A. and Becker, R.O., Size-specific metal complexing sites in native collagen, Nature, 225, 1134, 1970.
148. Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J., Barranco, S.D., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Antibacterial effects of silver electrodes with weak direct current, Microb. Agents. Chemother., 6, 637, 1974.
149. Spadaro, J.A., Chase, S.E., and Webster, D.A., Bacterial inhibition by electrical activation of percutaneous silver implants, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 20, 565, 1986.
150. Spadaro, J.A., Kramer, S.J., and Webster, D.A., Antibacterial demineralized bone matrix using silver, 28th Annual ORS, New Orleans, LA, Jan. 19-21, 1982.
151. Spadaro, J.A., Mino, D.E. and Chase, S.E., Bone formation without current: The effect of electrode motion, 30th Annual ORS, Atlanta, GA, Feb. 7-9, 1984, 69.
152. Spadaro, J.A., Mino, D.E., Chase, S.E., Werner, F.W. and Murray, D.G., Mechanical factors in electrode-induced osteogenesis, J. Orthop. Res., 4, 37, 1986.
153. Spadaro, J.A., Webster, D.A., Chapin, S.E., Yuan, H.A., Murray, D.G. and Becker, R.O. Silver-PMMA antibacterial bone cement, 24th Annual ORS, Dallas, TX, Feb. 21-23, 1978, 173.
154. Spadaro, J.A., Webster, D.A. and Chase, S.E., Direct current activation of bacteriostatic silver electrodes, Third Annual BRAGS, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 2-5, 1983.
155. Spadaro, J.A., Webster, D.A., and Becker, R.O., Silver polymethyl methacrylate antibacterial bone cement, Clin. Orthop. 143, 266, 1979.
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